陳澄波全集）全１８巻完結！ 発表会の案内が届きました。 RT_@tiniasobu
Teacher, Artist, and Politician: Chen Cheng-po’s Vocations as Hinted in His Notebooks
ANKEI Yuji (安溪遊地), YOSHINAGA Nobuyuki (吉永敦征), IZAO Tomio (井竿富?)1
A. Chen Cheng-po’s lifetime and his three notebooks
In the collection of Chen Cheng-po Cultural Foundation (the Foundation),2 there exist three notebooks. The first notebook, labeled A Collection of Essays (the Collection), was started on January 1, 1915 when Chen was a student at the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office National Language School (National Language School) in Taihoku (today’s Taipei). The second notebook, labeled “Philosophy” on its cover, was started on April 27, 1926 when Chen was a third-year student at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts. The third notebook consisted mainly of a long essay and was labeled “Review (Society and Art)” (Review Notebook) and dated September 9, 1945. Whereas the first two notebooks were written in Japanese, the third was in Chinese.These are the rare records that have remained until today to tell us what Chen Cheng-po wrote, apart from what he drew, in his school days and afterwards.Throughout his life, Chen Cheng-po had pursued the three ambitions of becoming a teacher, an artist, and a politician. In an interview, his eldest son Chen Tsung-kuang told Izao Tomio and his students from Japan that his father had accomplished the first two ambitions with much success, but the last ambition was a complete catastrophe that ended in his being summarily uted during the 228 Incident (see Section 4C).The above-mentioned three notebooks were respectively written during times he was preparing to face new challenges of life.Encouraged by Chen Tsung-kuang’s son Chen Li-po and other members of the Foundation, we have worked since March 2016 to find out what were written in Japanese in his notebooks, andwe wish to share our discoveries. Our investigation has been supplemented by studying texts written on loose sheets of paper, on sketchbooks, or in the margin of his books.
B. Chen Cheng-po’s Japanese handwriting
Before entering the public school in Chiayi at the age of 13, Chen Cheng-po studied Chinese classics in a private school. At the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, the characters in his calligraphy exercises were so well balanced and neatly written that there was little correction from his teacher. Though Chen’s calligraphy skill might have been passed down from his father, who died in 1909, the handwriting in his notebooks is hard to decipher because of the cursive style he employed.Some characters are illegible because they are fragmentary, or because the paper on which they were written has been torn. If we could get hold of the original texts from which Chen Cheng-po had copied, we could rebuild these characters, but only a few of the originals could be found.In the second notebook which Chen Cheng-po used for his philosophy and education classes, the handwriting is even more difficult to decipher. This is so probably because he had to jot down sentences which were only spoken but not written on the blackboard. Also, as Chen Cheng-po had to keep pace with the spoken words of his teachers, he had wrongly written many characters in Chinese which had the same Japanese pronunciations. He might have particular difficulties in writing down the names of western scholars when they were written in alphabets of English, German, Latin, or even Greek.An abundance of mixed use of different forms of characters could be found in the first notebook, examples include 歸?帰?? and 氣?気?气. Whereas 歸 and 氣 are in the formal style similar to present-day traditional Chinese characters, 帰 and 気 are the popular versions which are mostly similar to the kanji used in Japanese writings nowadays, while ? and 气 are abridged versions not unlike the simplified Chinese characters of today. The authors have mostly retained the different versions used in the original script and have made no attempts to unify the character types. If there are characters that are obviously wrongly written or mistaken, however, the authors will provide the correct ones within parentheses and underline them.
C. Difficulty of literary Japanese
In Chen Cheng-po’s days, written Japanese was far more difficult to master than its spoken form than today, especially in the classical style and in verses.Let us take an example from a Japanese song that Chen Tsung-kuang chose to sing with us on our request when we visited his home in Chiayi in March 2016. The title of the song was Umiyukaba 海行かば (If I Go Away to the Sea), being an extract from a long poem to praisethe emperor for the discovery of gold in the north. The poem was written by Ōtomo no Yakamochi (ca. 718-785, 大伴家持), the learned poet-administrator who compiled the first songbook of Japan, Man-yōshū (萬葉集). In the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, Chen Cheng-po was asked to practice calligraphy on poems of his choice from this songbook. All the nine poems he had chosen were the love poems exchanged between the poet and a lady named Ki no Iratsume.
Japanese children including Taiwanese and Korean ones during the Japanese colonial era were made to sing this song at schools, but most of them misunderstood the lyrics.4 Ankei Yuji’s mother Fumiko was 18 years old in 1937 when she first heard Umiyukaba as if it were the second national anthem. She wondered why this song mentioned about four hippopotami. This explains why:
Umi yukaba mizuku kabane； Yama yukaba kusamusu kabane； Ōkimi no he ni koso shiname； Kaerimi wa seji (If I go away to the sea, I shall be a corpse washed up /If I go to the mountain, I shall be a corpse in the grass / But if I die for the Emperor, it will not be a regret.)
Sung by children as:
Umi ni kaba mimizuku bakane； Yama ni kaba kusamusu kaba ne； Ō! Kimi no he ni koso shiname (Hippos are in the ocean, owls are fools aren’t they? Hippos in the hills are hippos smelling bad aren’t they? Oh, I am determined to die from your fart!?
Fumiko also remembered another song that celebrates the birth of the prince baby on December 24, 1933?Hitsugi no miko wa aremashinu (The Prince to Succeed the Sun Dynasty is Just Born日嗣の御子は生れましぬ)?but was understood by children as Hitsugi no miko wa aremaa shinu (Alas, the baby in the coffin is dying! 棺の御子はアレマー死ぬ).